Many rare isotopes, such as Be-10, C-14, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, I-129 and several isotopes of Uranium and Plutonium can be analysed with AMS. One of the most common applications of the method is radiocarbon dating. The technique is widely used for determining the age of carbon-containing samples by measuring the amount of radioactive C-14 isotope in them. In addition to archaeology and historical research, AMS is also commonly used for determining the bioportion (the proportion of biobased content in a sample) of different kinds of fuels.
The isotopes analysed with AMS have a wide range of dating applications and they are used in a variation of chronometers and tracers. Therefore, AMS is utilized in many disciplines, such as geological and planetary sciences, geomorphology, quaternary science, environmental and atmospheric research, archaeology, historical research, global climate change control, nuclear safeguards and biomedicine.
XRD is a non-destructive analytical technique. The outcome of XRD measurement is a Diffractogram showing:
The Structural properties:
▪️ Stress in the sample
▪️ Grain size of the sample
▪️ Identifies the orientation of a single crystal or grain
1. As Crystal lattice has a three-dimensional diffraction pattern of atoms Defects have a dominating influence on crystalline solid properties so the XRD technique is used to provide information about those defects.
2. XRD identifies phase quantification, preferred orientation, Peak positions, peak heights, and % Crystallinity. Sharp peaks are the reason for large crystallites and as crystallite size reduces peak width increases.
3. It examines a diverse range of materials from solid objects and powders and thin films to nanomaterials.
4. It measures the interplanar spacings
5. Unit cell dimensions are also identified
6. The latest Technology gets an upper hand in the technique where diffractometer systems are programmed to measure record and interpret every particular diffractogram even of highly complex mixtures.
7. Chemical phases are determined qualitatively and quantitively in Powders.
8. Layer parameters such as width, density, and roughness are discovered through High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction.
9. Micro X-ray diffraction is used for very small sample analysis containing less than 1mm crystal constituents (µ-XRD).