X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

XPS is a chemical surface evaluation method that is used to evaluate the surface properties of a substance in its “as obtained” condition and after some diagnosis, such as fragmentation, trying to cut, or scratching in the air or Ultraviolet visibility, ion beam engraving to clean off any of the foreign material, heat stress to analyze the modifications caused by thermal, reactionary gases or solutions exposure, ion beam implant exposure, and ultraviolet exposure.

Working Principle:

X-rays (photons) are directed towards a sample, and when electrons in the sample absorb enough energy, they are expelled with a certain kinetic energy. A detector analyzes the energy of the expelled electrons, and a plot of these energies and relative quantities of electrons is created. Distinct energies of electrons take different courses through the detector, allowing the computer to discriminate the electrons and create the spectra.

XPS Applications:

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (2021, October 27). Methods. Retrieved June 11, 2022, from https://serc.carleton.edu/msu_nanotech/methods/xps.html

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